Updated 6/28,7/11,7/15,7/29,8/5 2012

Plant Science: For Culinary Arts and Health

This page pertains to natural plant science pertinent to understanding natural ingredients for cooking, including nutrition, flavor (taste, aroma, texture, etc.), allergies, medicinal qualities and more.

Aromatic Compounds: Components of Fragrance

Allergenic Compounds: Causes of Allergies

Broad classes of chemical components of food in plants:


Broad classes of chemical components of food in plants:

 - Nutrients
 	- Macronutrients
		- carbohydrates
			- sugar
				- glucose (dextrose): via photosynthesis => NADPH + ATP   glucose
				- sucrose
				- fructose
				- lactose
				- maltose
				- galactose
			- starch
					- amylose
					- amylopectin
			- fiber
				- soluble
				- insoluble
					- arabinoxylans (copolymers of two pentose sugars  arabinose and xylose)
					- cellulose
					- dextrins
						- maltodextrin
						- cyclodextrin
						- amylodextrin
						- alpha limit dextrin
						- beta limit dextrin
					- inulin
						- w/ terminal glucose
							- alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(n-1)-D-fructofuranosides
							- beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(n-1)-D-fructofuranosides
						- w/o terminal glucose
							- beta-D-fructopyranosyl-[D-fructofuranosyl](n-1)-D-fructofuranosides
					- lignin: Biosynthesis: shared pathway with phenylpropanioids => glucose removed => polymerisation
					- waxes
					- chitins
					- pectins
					- beta-glucans
					- oligosaccharides.
			- alchohols
				- ethyl
		- lipids
			- saturated fat
			- polyunsaturated fat
			- monounsaturated fat
		- protein
			- amino acids
				- alanine	codons: GCT, GCC, GCA, GCG
				- arginine	ESSENTIAL (from glutimate/glutamic acid), codons: AGA, AGG, CGT, CGC, CGA, CGG
				- asparagine 	(not in USDA ref nutrient database), codons: AAT, AAC
				- aspartic acid (aspartate), codons: GAT, GAC
				- cysteine	(conditionally essential), codons: TGT, TGC
				- glutamine	(conditionally essential, not in USDA ref nutrient database), codons: CAA, CAG
				- glutamic acid	codons: GAA, GAG
				- glycine	(conditionally essential), codons: GGC, GGA, GGG
				- histidine	ESSENTIAL (from 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate), codons: CAT, CAC
				- hydroxyproline
				- isoleucine	ESSENTIAL, from threonine, codons: ATT, ATC, ATA
				- leucine	ESSENTIAL, codons: CTT, CTC, CTA, CTG
				- lycine	ESSENTIAL, codons: AAA, AAG
				- methionine	ESSENTIAL, codon: ATG
				- phenylalanine	ESSENTIAL, codons: TTT, TTC
				- proline	(conditionally essential), codons, CCT, CCC, CCA, CCG
				- serine	codons: TCT, TCC, TCA, TCG
				- taurine	(conditionally essential, not in USDA ref nutrient database)
				- tryptophan	ESSENTIAL, codon: TGG
				- threonine	ESSENTIAL (from oxaloacetate -> aspartate {aspartic acid}), codons: ACT, ACC, ACA, ACG
				- tyronsine	(conditionally essential), codons: TAT, TAC
				- valine	ESSENTIAL, codons: GTT, GTC, GTA, GTG
	- Micronutrients
		- Vitamins + precursors
			- A (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene)
			- B1 (thiamin)
			- B2 (riboflavin)
			- B3 (niacin)
			- B5 (pantothenic acid)
			- B6 (pyridoxal)
			- B12 (Cobalamin, From microbes)
			- C (ascorbic acid)
			- (D from Sun, D-3)
			- E (alpha-tocopherol. ?beta-tocopherol?, ?delta-tocopherol?, ?gamma-tocopherol?)
			- K (phylloquinone)
		- ?Minerals
			- Calcium (Ca)
			- Iron (Fe)
			- Magnesium (Mg)
			- Phosphorus (P)
			- Potassium (K)
			- Sodium (Na)
			- Zinc (Zn)
			- Copper (Cu)
			- Fluoride (F)
			- Manganese (Mn)
			- Selenium (Se)
	- Trace nutrients
		- ?

 - Other Beneficial Phytochemicals
	- Protective
	- Medicinal
	- Other?
		- choline
		- beta-cryptoxanthin
		- betaine
		- folate
		- folic acid
		- lutein + zaexanthin
		- lycopene
		- Psuedo tannins (Refs: Wikipedia)
			- Gallic acid (rhubard)
			- flavan-3-ols (Catechins: Acacia, catechu, cocoa, guarana)
			- Ghlorogenic acid (Nux vomica, coffee, mate)
			- Ipecacuanhic acid: Carapichea ipecacuanha
		

 - Misc
 	- methylxanthine compounds:
		- Caffeine
		- Theobromine (xantheose): alkaloid, a dimethyl xanthine
			- a "lesser" homologue of caffeine, acts in body like a weaker caffeine.
				- blood vessel widener, diuretic, heart stimulant, reduces inflammation and inate immunity.
				- cough supressant (including from capsaicin).
			- found in (cacao/chocolate, tea, cola, etc.)


 - Detrimental Phytochemicals
	- Antinutrients: 
	  Refs:
	    Laptop c:\Science\Food\Nutrition\absorptionAndAntinutrients
	  - K.E. Akande, U. D. Doma, H.O. Agu, H.M. Adamu, 
	   "Major Antinutrients Found in Plant Protein Sources: Their Effect on Nutrition", 
	   Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (8): 827-832, 2010, Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010
	 	- Toxic amino acids
			Examples:
			- Djenkolic acids
			- Mimosine
			- Canavanine
		- Saponins: foam producing
			- triterpene
			- steroidal glycosides

		- Cyanogenic glycosides
			- phaseolutanin
		- Tannins (taste bitter + very astringent): bind to + block action of digestive enzymes for carbs + protein
			- building blocks:
				- Gallic acid: 
					- example polymer (antiquated?) class: Hydrolyzable (Gallo?) tannins
				- Flavone
					- example polymer (antiquated?) class: Non-Hydrolyzable (Condensed) tannins
						Partial list (Ref: www.naturalpedia.com/Condensed_tannins.html):
						condensed tannins = proanthocyanidins (polymeric flavanoids)
						- flavan-3-ols:
							- epicatechin				
							- catechin
						- 3-deoxyflavonoid pigments or phlobaphenes in maize + sorghum.
				- Phloroglucinol
					- example polymer (antiquated?) class: Phlorotannins
		- Phytic acid,
		- Gossypol,
		- Oxalates,
		- Goitrogens
		- Lectins (phylohaemagglutinins)
		- Protease inhibitors
		- Chlorogenic acid
		- Amylase inhibitors
	    Further classified
		- Absorption interference
		- Depletion
	- Other Toxins
	- Allergens
	  Refs:
	  - Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins:  http://fermi.utmb.edu/cgi-bin/SDAP/sdap_01
	  - Predicting food allergen proteins: 		 http://www.bioinfo.de/isb/2002020048/
	- Transgenetic metabolites (due to GMO's)

 
 - Aromatic Compounds
      
	en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aroma_compound
	- an example with known pathway: anethole
	
	- Classified by structure
		- esters
		- linear terpenes
		- cyclic terpenes
		- aromatic
		- amines
	- Other 
		- Alcohols
		- Aldehydes
		- Esters
		- Ketones
		- Lactones
		- Thiols
		- Misc
 - Pungent Compounds
	- capsaicin:	"hot" as in chilli peppers.
	- cardanol:	pink pepper
	- gingerol:	slight bite as in ginger root.
	- piperine:	slight warmth/bite of black pepper.
	- sanshool:	(Hydroxy-alpha sanshool) from sansho pepper.
	- shogaol:	slight bite as in ginger root.
	- thiocyanates, (sulfur volatiles):	nose burn as in horseradish, hot mustard and wasabi.

Metabolic Pathways, Metabolic Maps, BioSynthesis Pathways

Olfactory Science


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